Moral duty is important. But what do we know about moral duty?
Probably, every person who is not even familiar withphilosophy, one day I asked myself the question: "What is moral and moral duty? How should I behave in society to be entitled to be called a Person? "After reading this article, you will learn why a moral duty is an ambiguous concept, and how various philosophers interpreted it. There is no exact definition until now.
The moral duty of man is a concept that is controversial
One of the most difficult aspects of the ethicalthinking is the ability to critically analyze one's own beliefs and admit the probability of error. When we take for granted the reasonableness of the reasons for which we act, we do not question many things. Although sometimes they just need to at least doubt or even resist them.
Our moral ideas are largelyare influenced by parents, friends, spouses or culture. Therefore, the confidence in their correctness is further strengthened. The moral norms of our actions are determined by a combination of many influences. We feel obligated to follow the established beliefs and rarely ask ourselves: "Are they based on truth or only on habit?"
What does the law say?
The law is a kind of cultural compass.Remember the code of Hammurabi's laws. On the plate with a height of more than two meters, certain rules are written. At the top of this stone monument was represented King Hammurabi, respectfully standing before the seated Shamash, the goddess of justice. Shamash from heaven dictated laws to his earthly representative. Of course, these moral norms did not arise out of nowhere. They were the result of many centuries of social development of civilization and ethical thinking. Similarly, the laws of the Russian Federation reflect the long years of development of our state and are constantly improving.
Socrates on the moral duty
According to Socrates, a moral duty is skillto be a good citizen. But this phrase needs to be understood and perceived deeper. According to Socrates, the notion of "being a good citizen" requires an additional philosophical consideration, while a person must achieve his own happiness through virtue. In Athens, this ancient philosopher was very popular.
Ideas of Plato
According to Plato (427-347 BC),The devil manifests himself in ignorance and virtue is learning. The main idea of this philosopher is that the highest good is the maximum approximation to the Absolute, which, in turn, can not be achieved in our life. Virtue is the ability of a person to control his behavior so that it conforms to common sense. This is the fulfillment of a moral duty. Acting in accordance with these rules, a person approaches the Absolute (or God, in the language of theology).
Thoughts of Aristotle. Ethics
The moral duty and his definition also excited Aristotle's thoughts. The philosopher devoted many of his works to this question.
Aristotle (384-322 BCE) even moreWorried Western society. With the special insight inherent in him, he solved many problems of ethics in his works and political essays. Unlike Plato, who began his observations with ideas, Aristotle preferred experimental analysis and the identification of causes.
He argued that the whole of mankind strives forhappiness as a final object of its activity, and all other virtues serve only as a means to achieve it. The philosopher adhered to the concept of eudemonism. According to this teaching, one should not try to satisfy all his desires, even if they give pleasure. Only those aspirations that bring prosperity can be considered virtues, so the moral duty is choosing the right desires. Aristotle's views on the notion of morality have made a great contribution to the development of ethics.
Traveling through different cultures and time periods, we meet with an endless variety of different, often contradictory, notions of morality.
Philosophy of Kant
Another very interesting definition of the term,considered in the article, can be found in Kant, an adherent of deontology. Kant defines virtue as the power of the will of a human being, directed toward the fulfillment of duty. According to this thinker, the nature of true morality is to fulfill duties, even if they do not bring pleasure to a person, and not because of fear of punishment because of their non-fulfillment. A man of high morality fulfills his moral duty without thinking about the consequences and benefits. According to Kant, one who acts to achieve some of his own good, can not be considered highly spiritual, like a man who does good deeds simply out of habit, thoughtlessly. Only an individual who lives by the principles of morality, since he really considers it his duty, can be called a highly moral person. Kant's philosophy is a system of moral values erected in the absolute. The Thinker considered certain actions to be unacceptable, regardless of the situation.
As we see, there are very many opinions and interpretationsa lot of. For some, the moral duty is to follow the norms and customs of the society in which they were born. Others with many value systems do not fully agree. To find the answer to the question: "What does the moral duty mean to me?", One must not forget both the spiritual heritage of the ancestors, and the need to think critically. The concept, on which we have dwelt in detail in the article, is very multifaceted and often contradictory, like every person.