Architecture of Kievan Rus
In the IX century, the Slavic people gathered under a singleprincely power, which led to the formation of a young and strong state - Kievan Rus. Historians by the time refer this event to the year 862. This period of the heyday of Kievan Rus was also called "country of cities", it began in the middle of IX and lasted until the beginning of the 12th century.
The architecture of Kievan Rus, like literature, isthis period was formed under the influence of the new Christian faith, but the ancient pagan heritage stretched through its entire history. This is confirmed by numerous masterpieces of architecture. A memorable ancient Russian architecture, includes ancient, original frescoes, sculptured facades and amazing ornaments of gold-domed churches and cathedrals. Many of them have survived to this day.
The unique architecture of Kievan Rus isa symbiosis of the best in the culture of the East Slavic tribes, the great Byzantine Empire, the tribes of nomads, and also their own. The architects of Ancient Rus formed their own style, which still fascinates the descendants' imagination. The architecture of Kievan Rus is most fully preserved in modern Kiev. It seems that it is in this place that all important masterpieces of that time were collected, for example the Tithe Church, St. Sophia Cathedral, the Golden Gate with the Annunciation Church and many others.
The great baptizer of Kievan Rus, Prince Vladimirin 996 he built his own Tithe Church with his own money. On the maintenance of it, he allocated a tenth of his income, before it was called - tithes, the church from this word and got its name. She had a great appointment in history. Old Russian architecture in this structure manifested itself in all its splendor.
It is very large, cross-dome,six-tiered. Built on the centuries from the stone, inside it was adorned with marvelous frescoes, mosaics and marble. Originally in the Church of the Tithes, the prince's tomb was built. Here was buried the wife of Vladimir, the Byzantine princess Anna and himself, who died in 1015. Then the remains of the legendary princess Olga were transported here. The interior decoration of this church also includes the iconostasis, crosses and other church utensils, which was the best at that time.
The art of Kievan Rus was amazingrefinement and skill of ancient local craftsmen. The fate of the church was tragic and in the beginning of the XI century it suffered from a fire, and then was repeatedly destroyed. In 1240, Khan Baty took Kiev, did not spare the shrine and completely destroyed the Church of the Tithes.
In the center of Ancient Kiev still flauntsSophia Cathedral. It is visible from afar, and its domes are covered with gold, cause admiration and pride for the fact that such a marvelous beauty monument has survived to our days. It is a place of pilgrimage for believers and one of the main historical sights of the capital. His story is not simple, he was also repeatedly looted during wars, including in 1240 by the warriors of Batu, but each time he rose from the ruins. In 1740 it was finally rebuilt, and its present appearance still pleases with its beautiful ancient view. Not far from St. Sophia Cathedral are the Golden Gate. It is a symbolic ancient monument, in which the architecture of Kievan Rus was reflected.
The gate was the face of the city and served toceremonial, solemn entrance to ancient Kiev. They were built in the southern part of the city by the Kiev prince Yaroslav the Wise in 1037. As additional protection, in front of the gate was dug a width of 15 meters and a depth of 8 meters. The Golden Gate is a real fortress tower with a passage of up to 7.5 meters. Until now, powerful pilasters have survived, ancient walls 9.5 meters high. Noteworthy gate church of the Annunciation at the Gate. It was a symbol of the Christian city. Archaeological research of the Golden Gates surprised scientists with the remains of its decoration: frescoes, cubes of bright transparent smalt, fragments of mosaic. Smalta was very often used in the decoration of ancient Slavic churches. Ancient architects loved her for longevity and extraordinary color variations of color, which in the finished form produced the effect of living flicker.
Undoubtedly, in this period of history the art of Kievan Rus reached its greatest flourishing, and the testimonies are the amazing monuments of architecture of that time.