Architectural and planning decision of the building
The design work envisages the development oftechnical documentation, which is further used as a basis for the implementation of the construction site. Architectural solutions in this context play the role of a bridge between the constructive, functional and aesthetic aspects of the embodiment of the conceived plan. The building is built taking into account the requirements for its practical operation, but, if possible, art-aesthetic adjustments are also made. The architecturally-planning decision does not dispense with and without amendments to third-party aspects of object operation. Developers take into account the social, economic, sanitary, as well as environmental requirements and conditions in which the future building will be used.
Elements of the layout
The layout affects several categoriesseparate groups of architectural and structural objects, from which the building is formed. This list, as well as technical requirements for the implementation of the project, defines a special set of rules (JV). Architectural and planning solutions for today are regulated by document SP 31-107, according to which the following categories of layout elements are distinguished:
- Entry group. This category includes tambours, vestibule zones, rooms for duty, etc.
- Ways of evacuation and staircases.
- Elevator knots and apertures. In some plans, the channels of the garbage chutes are also referred to this category.
For each of these groups, architects select the optimal placement parameters in terms of ergonomics and security.
Solving the problems of environmental safety
Designing a residential building, as already noted,involves the consideration of environmental and sanitary conditions. Without fail, specialists should take into account the gamma background and radioactive radiation at the site, which is being prepared for construction work. If the measurements showed an unacceptably low level of environmental safety, the architectural and planning solutions of residential buildings will have to include measures to limit the penetration of radioactive substances into the premises from the underground.
Typically, architects are faced with tasksisolation of technical underground premises and basement floor in order to neutralize gas mixtures. As a rule, the struggle comes with radon radiation. Practically such tasks are realized by sealing structural joints and cracks, intensive ventilation of the underground, etc. Dangers can also come from a number of available parking lots. In this situation, the architectural and planning solution of the building is aimed at the organization of a barrier from exhaust gases. For this, special structural superstructures are designed, including visors above the entrances. In modern projects, parking lots are initially located away from windows and entrances of residential buildings.
Means of noise insulation
Minimizing the noise figure penetrating into theThe living quarters are a necessary measure in terms of providing comfort. Initially, work in this direction is realized through favorable orientation of the premises. For example, technical and utility rooms are located on the side, close to the main streets. Living rooms, on the contrary, are oriented to the quietest side - for example, to the court. But the main methods of reducing the undesirable noise impact architectural volume-planning solutions are laid in the part of the structural construction and finishing works.
This means that the material for the erection of wallsmust have a certain thickness and structure, suitable to ensure sufficient sound insulation. So, an effective noise barrier creates foam and aerated concrete blocks, but they lose to traditional brick in terms of strength and durability. As for the finish, insulation can be achieved by using mineral wool, polystyrene plates, felt pads, etc.
Provision of insolation
Important for a comfortable and safe staythe parameter is also insolation. It indicates the level of exposure to direct solar radiation on residential premises. Normalization of this indicator is achieved due to the optimal distance between the interdigibility facades. In this case, we can not do without taking into account the construction orientation of the objects. The developers of the project are choosing not just the optimal aspects of housing accommodation, but regulate the most acceptable orientation of the buildings and sections themselves. In conditions of dense construction, the architectural and planning solution can provide standard insolation due to additional techniques. These include the use of rotary structural inserts, sections with a shift in the plan, placement of lift units and staircases in the shaded corner, etc.
Accounting for regional features in the planning
Normative acts subdivide regions bypeculiarities of climatic conditions, offering special requirements for each group. The first group, for example, should be designed with a minimum number of elements in the input group. Also, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of minimizing snow and heat losses. The second and third categories include the deepening of buildings with more effective wind and snow protection.
To reduce the infiltration of cold airadditional entrances to the buildings from two sides are introduced. Inside insulation is implemented by standard methods, as provides a typical architectural and planning solution. Areas with strong frosts are not recommended for buildings with a height of more than 4-5 floors. Otherwise, the reception of roof alignment is excluded, and attic spaces should receive reinforced windproofing with insulation.
Layout of apartments
Development of projects for apartments in the first placeaims to optimize the choice of dimensions and area for each room. Under optimal parameters in this case we mean values that will allow you to conveniently place the necessary furniture, equipment and household appliances. The layout itself is developed taking into account the mentioned climatic, as well as household and demographic factors. The type of apartment is also taken into account - for the private sector or social hiring. Normative requirements for architectural and planning solutions for apartments set and specific boundaries in terms of area. For example, in a one-room apartment, a common room should have an area of at least 14 m2. If there are 2 or more rooms, this value increases to 16 m2.
Possibilities for transforming the layout
Ideas of alteration of apartments often arise inmodern settlers. Especially it concerns the objects of the old layout, which does not fit into new ideas about interior design. Therefore, new homes are guided by the possibility of future change. What does this imply? At a minimum, the owner can change the size of the rooms, merge rooms or change functional areas. In the most flexible execution, the architectural and planning solution allows for the possibility of combining apartments on one floor. These are radical approaches to transformation, the implementation of which implies a fundamental re-equipment of utility utilities.
Layout of common areas
Opportunities for organizing publicthe premises inside the apartment buildings are initially taken into account in the project or in the future they are equipped according to the built-in attached method. In this case, the architectural and planning solution takes into account the potential impact of this type of premises on the higher-lying living rooms. The noise, air pollution, the impact of newly developed engineering equipment, etc., are estimated.
Feature of architectural and planningdocumentation is that it allows you to consider the quality characteristics of buildings outside the main line of technical requirements for the strength, durability and reliability of the facility. Engineers focus on this complex of parameters, often ignoring other operational aspects. Complex architectural and planning constructive solutions, in turn, offer to take into account the residents' requests for ergonomics and security. These requests are based on the research of specialists from different fields. The same normative documents and codes of rules are developed by employees of sanitary services, environmentalists, designers, estimates, etc.