Antibodies in the blood - protecting the body from infection
Nature created man in the form of a collectionset of the most complex systems and processes, on each of which the state of health of the individual depends. The immune system is one of the most important functional units, which is responsible for human interaction with the surrounding world and is designed to protect it from various microorganisms. For this, she uses special glycoproteins, which we call antibodies.
Antibodies in the blood - what is it?
From the course of school biology we all know thatantibodies in the blood are present in humans constantly, and they are in each of us. Their set differs depending on what kind of diseases a person has tolerated during his life and from which diseases he was vaccinated, a certain type of antibodies can neutralize only a certain type of pathogen. That is why doctors can, for the diagnosis of a disease, prescribe an analysis for antibodies in the blood, the norm of which for each specific disease is different.
Particular importance is given to the amount of antibodies inpregnancy, so all pregnant women screened for antibodies in the blood without fail. The waiting period for a baby born in a pregnant woman can worsen many diseases that previously gave her any trouble, but who now can threaten life or normal development of her child. The complex binding assays include research on antibodies in the blood to the major viral infections that are dangerous to the fetus, ie, rubella, herpes and toxoplasmosis.
In what cases it is necessary to donate blood for antibodies
In addition, similar studies arevarious parasitic infections. Under the condition of healthy immunity, the human body reacts sharply to any foreign organism that enters the immune system, and it does not matter whether it's a bacterium or some kind of parasite. To activate the body's defenses, it takes some time for which the antibodies in the blood begin to be produced, after which their number increases dramatically and on this basis one can speak about the presence of infection in the body.
If the patient has a suspicion of anyinfection, it sometimes happens that you have to test for antibodies several times, because some pathogens can be present in the body in a latent state for days and even weeks. For example, for detection of a lambliasis from the moment of infection should pass not less than 10 days, and if the result is doubtful, it is possible to assign additional analysis in a week.
Types of antibodies of the human body
There are several types of antibodies thatdiffer depending on the functions that they must perform. For example, antiparasitic and anti-infectious antibodies are aimed at destroying the causative agent of the disease or at least violating its activity. Antitoxic immunoglobulins do not directly harm the pathogen, but effectively neutralize its toxins, which cause the symptoms of the disease. It should be remembered that sometimes elevated antibodies in the blood say not about the existence of an infection in the body at the moment, but about what it has ever been. Such agents can not overcome the infection, but simply report it. Autoantibodies are signs of autoimmune diseases, the essence of which is that the body's immune system ceases to distinguish between its own cells and produces antibodies to them, simply destroying them. Alloantibodies are precisely those guards that protect the body from cells of a similar type, but belonging to another organism. It is because of their activities that there is a rejection of organs during transplantation or a negative reaction occurs with blood transfusion.