A compass is an instrument. The program "Compass" is ...
Hardly having learned to walk exactly, ancient people at oncethey began to explore the surrounding area. Often too far from the dwelling of the ancient man, there were problems with finding a way home. A little later, people learned to navigate the stars. And over time, a magnetic compass was invented. For centuries he served humanity with faith and truth, and today for many people the compass is not only a device, but also an extremely useful computer program.
What device is called a compass?
Contrary to the common misconception, the word "compass"came not from Latin, German or English, but from Italian. It is translated as "measure by steps". For more than two thousand years of using this device by mankind, the traditional magnetic compass has not changed much and is still popular.Also invariably and its purpose: as in the old days, today the compass is an instrument used to determine the sides of the world. He is an indispensable assistant in orientation on unfamiliar terrain, especially in the forest.
History of appearance
The inventors of the first compass were the Chinese. Back in the III century BC. they had a special device consisting of a metal polished spoon, which was installed on a special dish with labels, and it played the role of a magnetized arrow.
After a few centuries, the spoon was replaced withMagnetized needle, and the accuracy of the device increased. Since then, the compass has become mandatory on all Chinese ships, thanks to which they easily kept the right course.
In Europe, this device came only in the second half of the 12th century with the Arabs who borrowed it from the Chinese. During the following centuries the compass design was improved.
Over time, scientists have discovered that the magnetic fieldplanet Earth is not homogeneous, in addition, the poles drift. Because of these factors, sometimes the magnetic compass readings were incorrect. Therefore, a more reliable device was required. He became a gyrocompass, invented in the late XIX century.
In the 20th century, with the development of technology, a radio compass appeared, later replaced by electronic GPS systems and Russian GLONASS.
Thanks to the popularity of cell phones in the XXI centurycentury compass function in them can run a mobile application that uses GPS. Everyone can download and use the "Compass" application in the phone. What is it and how it works, the modern mobile owner even has no need to know - everything is automated.
Despite the popularity of the application, some electronic devices are also embedded in some cellular phones. This device works like a traditional magnetic compass thanks to special magnetometers.
Types of magnetic compasses
All varieties of compasses are divided into two huge categories: magnetic and electronic.
As the name implies, any magnetic compass -It is an instrument in which the side of the light is determined by means of a magnetized arrow. In addition to the traditional compass, which is also called a tourist compass, this category includes specialized devices.
Military. In contrast to the traditional, it is made of more durable metal and equipped with an additional lens and ruler.
A geological compass is an instrument usingwhich can not only navigate in space, but also determine the angles at which geological layers are located, thanks to a half-limb and a clinometer built into the apparatus. In this compass, unlike the traditional one, the scale is located counter-clockwise.
Compass Bussol. The magnetic compass, specially adapted for artillery needs, is improved with the help of a gyrating circle and a sighting device. Based on it, a marine compass was created under the name of a direction finder.
Types of non-magnetic compasses
These types of compasses have a number of advantages over magnetic ones, since other methods are used for orientation.
Gyroscopic (gyrocompass). It does not depend on the magnetic field of the earth, therefore it is more accurate. It is not oriented to magnetic fields, but to the true pole of the Earth. Since the beginning of the XX century, it has often been used not only on sea vessels, but also on missile technology.
Astronomical compass. This device allows you to determine the position, focusing on the heavenly bodies - in the day on the sun, at night on the stars. It is much more reliable than magnetic and gyroscopic compasses.Its only weak point is clouds: if the celestial body does not fall into the zone of visibility, it is impossible to determine the side of the world.
Radiocompass is an instrument that determines the sides of the world by means of radio waves.
Electronic compass. Was popular until the advent of digital compass programs. This device determined the side of the world using electronic microcircuits, which were guided by magnetic fields.
Digital compass. What is this is clear from the name itself. Unlike electronic, this device uses GPS and GLONASS to determine the sides of the world. In the mechanism of the digital compass is a tiny antenna that receives data about the sides of the light from the satellites. Because of the cheapness and practicality, many modern mobile phones and tablets are equipped with this device. It is enough simply to install the corresponding program (if it is not included in the list of factory ones) and - a digital compass in the tablet.
What is it - the Compass system?
For many business people today the word "compass"has long been not associated with the instrument for determining the sides of the world. Since for many years the "Compass" system has been very popular on the domestic software market.
It is a software product of the Russiancompany. With its help, enterprise management, regardless of its specialization, is greatly simplified. The system helps to monitor all areas of the company: from financial funds to personnel management.
The Compass program is what?
The name "Compass" is also carried by a group of programs of the well-known Russian developer company "Ascon".
"Compass" is an acronym for "a complex of automated systems." The purpose of these programs - the creation of engineering projects, as well as documentation for them in accordance with the necessary standards.
Using the programs of the "Compass" family, you can create all possible 3D models of drawings.
The history of Compass
The first program "Compass" appeared in the late eighties and quickly gained popularity not only in the Russian market, but also in the countries of the near abroad.
With the expansion of the Windows operating system, it became necessary to adapt "Compass" for it, which was done in 1997.
Then the program developed, adapting to the needs of users. So, since 2010 users of Compass have the opportunity to work with it remotely.
Features of the program
Thanks to the program "Compass" you can create on your computer a three-dimensional image of any solid objects: from a tiny bolt to a whole train or building.For ease of use, the program is equipped with an entirean engineering library containing the most common diagrams of parts, mechanisms and even architectural structures. These drawings in "Compass" can be edited at their discretion, creating on their own basis. In addition, many processes are automated, which saves the user time.
There is a whole line of programs of this kind. In order to work in most of them, you need to acquire a license, so that they are usually used in enterprises.
The most popular version is "Compass-3D"This is a program that allows you to design three-dimensional models of products of any complexity. Since the beginning of the 2000th, almost every year new versions of this program have been released.
Compass-3D includes Compass-Graph designed for automation of design work in various fields.
Specially for the construction industry, the program "Compass-Builder" was written. It not only helps to create drawings, but also allows you to bring the accompanying documentation to the relevant standards.
Versions that can be used without a license
Many students of engineering universities often can notallow yourself to purchase a licensed version of this program. Specially for them was released several free versions - "Compass-3D LT", "Compass-3D Home" and "Training version of Compass-3D." It is worth noting that all the completed drawings in Compass-3D LT, Home or the "Training version" are not intended for commercial use, which is the appropriate mark on each printed sheet of the finished drawing.
"Compass-3D LT", with the exception of severallimitations, has almost all the advantages of "Compass-3D". It is adapted for the school curriculum, but can be used in various design circles.
Unlike the previous version, "Training version"Compass-3D" is not suitable for use in a school or other educational institution. This version is intended for home use or self-education. To install it on your computer, it's enough to simply register on the official website.
The version of "Compass-3D Home" is functionallyfull copy of Compass-3D. It even includes some exclusive materials. However, the drawings created in it can not be used for commercial purposes. In addition, this version lacks some applications, and also the ability to adapt drawings to other programs is limited.
Novelties of recent years in the program
Since 2006, the appearance of the program has not been changed. However, the program "Compass-3D" V17, which is about to appear, for the first time in a long period, contains serious changes in the interface.
So the traditional color scheme is changed to morecalm, which has a beneficial effect on eyesight and less tiring of the eyes. The blocks of business logic and interface will also be separated from each other. In addition, you will be able to find the necessary information in the program using commands and the details tree.
Thanks to the innovations of the already released V16 and the future V17, the number of operations that the user performs to get a certain result in the program will be reduced by 30%.
Among other things, with "Compass" in future yearscan work and those users who have a Linux operating system on their computer (since 1997 and to this day the program is adapted only for Windows).
Like many centuries ago, the compass todayremains a faithful assistant of man. Only its functions have changed a little. Now the compass is not just a device for orientation in space, but also a family of programs with which you can create the most complex drawings.